Kentucky's WBKO reports deputies found the kids Monday night following a complaint from a neighbour and took the children to hospital.
The children, aged eight months to 14 years old and believed to be from a blended family, have been placed into foster care. The parents claim they had to leave the state because of a family emergency and had car trouble, police told the broadcaster.
Nine dogs and a cat were also found at the residence.
Police say they arrested the mother, believed to be the biological mother of some of the children, Tuesday afternoon and are still searching for the father.
Jackie Farrah has been charged with 14 counts of criminal abuse and five counts of wanton endangerment.